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ACTIVA TU MEMORIA

La memoria de un pueblo está hecha de la suma de las memorias individuales de las personas que lo componen. Construir la verdad de nuestra historia es una labor común de todos los andaluces y andaluzas. Por eso pedimos tu voz y tu palabra. Ayúdanos a esclarecer las atrocidades del fascismo y a recuperar la historia de quienes lucharon por la libertad. 

Si fuiste represaliado por el franquismo, o eres hijo, nieto o descendiente de una persona que luchó por la libertad y la democracia, o que peleó contra el franquismo y sufrió cárcel, persecución o destierro, ponte en contacto con nosotros. Llámanos por teléfono o envíanos un correo electrónico.  

Llama al teléfono 956 640 998 ó escribe al correo electrónico info@casamemorialasauceda.es

También puedes enviarnos una carta, una grabación en audio o un vídeo. Lo que prefieras. Tu testimonio no se puede perder. Entre todos construimos la voz del pueblo y la verdad de nuestra historia.  Activa tu memoria. Construye la memoria de Andalucía.




logopeque

VIDAS MARCADAS

JUANA BARRERO RUIZ

Juana Barreno Ruiz is the daughter of Andrés and Eleuteria. She was born in Las Granadillas, a country area outside Jimena, close to La Sauceda. She was one and a half when the civil war began. Her father suffered an injury to one arm when Franco’s troops entered Jimena; later he was arrested, put onto a lorry and nothing more was ever known of him. He worked in the countryside, making charcoal, and selling milk from his goats. Those were his crimes. His wife, with four small children, had to manage on her own. She moved to the castle in Castellar and brought up Juana and her siblings there. Juana never knew her father. Of her mother, she has only good memories. Of her generosity, her courage and the bravery she showed when she refused to sign the paper that was put in front of her which said that Andrés Barreno had died a natural death, so she could receive a widow’s pension. She refused to betray the memory of her husband, or to give in to the pain. She kept her family going, and her children and grandchildren are very proud of her.

EUFEMIA DOMÍNGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

Eufemia Domínguez Jiménez was nine when the planes of Franco’s army flew over the mountains to bombard La Sauceda.  She was living with her father, her pregnant mother and her two sisters not far from the community in which many people from Cádiz province who were loyal to the Republic had taken refuge. Her father, Francisco, who sold charcoal and had a small farm, put her mother, María Jiménez González, and his two daughters on a horse and they went into the mountains to hide. After a few days he took them to Jimena, and he joined a group of men who were resisting the insurrection in the mountains. They never saw him again. The Francoists went looking for them, found them and killed them at El Marrufo. They also killed his mother, Eufemia’s grandmother. She remembers her father with great affection. She says he was a good man, and much loved by everybody. He often promised his daughters that one day they would go to live in the village and would be able to study. He couldn’t keep his promise, but he left his daughter the memory of his integrity and his affection. Eufemia has always treasured those memories.

JUAN GONZÁLEZ RÍOS

Juan González Ríos was born in 1928 and when he was nine years old he had already lost his father, who had been executed by Francoist forces, and two of his brothers, who had also been shot. The brother who was immediately above him in terms of age, and was in his teens, died because he had lent a pickaxe to those who were digging a trench in San José del Valle to defend the village after the military insurrection of 18th July. His father, Francisco, and mother María, loaded their possessions onto mules, gathered up the eight children that were left and took refuge in La Sauceda. They thought the uprising would be overcome within a short time, and order would be restored. They were wrong. Juan clearly remembers the day on which a plane dropped three bombs on the community, and how another three aircraft then filled the valley with terror. His father took the family into the mountains but decided to return to San José del Valle, thinking that the death of a son had already been punishment enough. He presented himself to the Guardia Civil, and he and his eldest son disappeared forever. His widow and sons suffered a post-war period full of privations and silence.

Juan González Ríos was born in 1928 and when he was nine years old he had already lost his father, who had been executed by Francoist forces, and two of his brothers, who had also been shot. The brother who was immediately above him in terms of age, and was in his teens, died because he had lent a pickaxe to those who were digging a trench in San José del Valle to defend the village after the military insurrection of 18th July. His father, Francisco, and mother María, loaded their possessions onto mules, gathered up the eight children that were left and took refuge in La Sauceda. They thought the uprising would be overcome within a short time, and order would be restored. They were wrong. Juan clearly remembers the day on which a plane dropped three bombs on the community, and how another three aircraft then filled the valley with terror. His father took the family into the mountains but decided to return to San José del Valle, thinking that the death of a son had already been punishment enough. He presented himself to the Guardia Civil, and he and his eldest son disappeared forever. His widow and sons suffered a post-war period full of privations and silence.

SIMÓN HERRERA GAVILÁN

Simón Herrera Gavilán was three years old in 1936. He lost his father shortly after the war began. Domingo Herrera Rojas was living at Las Hermanillas, an area outside Jimena de la Frontera. Some falangists stole the few goats he owned and took them to El Marrufo, the estate which, although it is part of the municipality of Jerez, is close to La Sauceda. Franco’s troops set up a detention and execution centre there. Domingo didn’t get his goats back; instead, he was shot. Simón had seven siblings and his mother, Antonia, died in 1940. Another family from Jimena, the Sánchez family, looked after the young orphans. Simón then lost his older brother when he went to do military service, and a second brother died from a health problem related to his stomach. He is eternally grateful to the family who took them in. And he has always wished he knew more about his father. “I think of him every single day,” he says. Simón has actively collaborated with the movement to recuperate the historic memory, and he visited the exhumations which were carried out at El Marrufo in 2012 several times. After DNA tests were carried out, he discovered that one of the 28 bodies which were recovered was that of his father.

ANDRÉS GARCÍA BARRERO

Andrés García Barreno was 14 when the war began. He and his five siblings lived in the countryside outside Jimena. His father, who worked for himself on the land, was called Matías, and his mother Catalina. His father just escaped being shot, but two of his cousins and an uncle were not so lucky. It was still painful for him to recall the injustice perpetrated upon them, and other inhabitants of Jimena and the nearby area. Nor could he forget the planes that flew over the mountains to bombard La Sauceda, or the Moroccan and Falange troops who went up there from Jimena to sow terror and death. He recalls the cobblers, the cork-collectors and the shopkeeper who were killed, and the 16 year-old boy who the Falangists set to work as a goatherd until they got fed up with him and shot him. He could still see the face of the teacher who was a prisoner for ten years, and the hunger and suffering of the mother of his cousins who were shot. Andrés died in 2012, but his testimony helped to rebuild the memory of Andalucía and the history of Francoist infamy.

SEBASTIAN PINO PANAL

Sebastián Pino Panal was born in Ubrique in 1911. He worked cutting cork in Castellar and then in Algeciras. He had been a member of the CNT since he was young, and that resulted in him spending time in jail even before the war. When the troops which were traitorous to the Republic rose in revolt, Algeciras quickly came under their control. Sebastián hid and managed to get to Málaga, where he joined the anarchist militia. He was chosen to command the Fermín Salvochea battalion, with which he became incorporated into the Republic’s regular army. He experienced the retreat to Almería, when Francoist ships bombarded the civil population of Málaga who were fleeing along the coast road. He fought with the battalion until he was taken prisoner. He was sentenced to death, but that was then reduced to 30 years in jail. He never abandoned his militancy with the CNT and in 1945, when he was in prison in El Puerto de Santa María, he was elected regional secretary for the Campo de Gibraltar. He spent 21 years in jail, but that didn’t crush him. He maintained his ideals until the end of his days. Sebastián died in 2003, in Algeciras.

hermanos PÉREZ RODRÍGUEZ

Inés, Josefa and Domingo Pérez Rodríguez were young children when the planes bombarded La Sauceda, but they still remember the sound of buzzing in the air, the bombs and the shooting. They also remember their father hiding them in a cave, to save them. They spent several days there, frightened and on tenterhooks. Their father came and went through a hole in the roof, in search of food. Until one day Francisco Pérez Fernández, aged 44, who collected cork, sold charcoal or contraband goods from Gibraltar, went off to look for food for his children and never came back. Their mother was left alone with five small children to feed and educate. The post-war period was very hard for them, but especially so for her; however, she refused to go into mourning because she always maintained hope that one day her husband would return, like some relatives who in the 1940s returned to Algeciras from France when everyone had given them up for dead. Inés, Josefa and Domingo, and two other siblings who have now died, lived with their mother in Los Barrios, and then in Algeciras.

AMADOR MORA ROJAS

Amador Mora Rojas was a teacher and was twice mayor of Tarifa. In 1931 he occupied the post for the first time, but was removed by the right-wing biennium government in 1933. He became mayor again following the triumph of the Popular Front in May 1936. Before the war he had already suffered frenzied attacks by the landowning right in the town for his support for the poor and for being in favour of secular and equal education for all. When the military insurrection took place, Amador fled with other people from Tarifa to Málaga and enlisted with the Pablo Iglesias battalion of the Republican army. Meanwhile, Franco’s troops shot his wife, Antonia Martín, and his children Carmen and Miguel. Amador Mora died fighting on the Córdoba front, close to Pozoblanco. In Tarifa, all the family’s belongings were confiscated, stolen or looted. The two surviving children, Juan and Antonia, only received the bag which their mother had left at Algeciras jail before being shot, and a pair of bloody earrings which had belonged to Carmen, their older sister, who was executed in Cádiz

JOSÉ LOBATO ALCONCHEL

José Lobato Alconchel was the son of Juan and María and he was six when La Sauceda was bombarded by Francoist planes. “The day of the bombs…. I can remember that better than what I had for breakfast this morning,” said José in 2010 when we interviewed him, a year before he died.  Lying on the floor of his house, beneath a blanket, José experienced with the innocence of a child something which for the inhabitants of La Sauceda was a tragedy which would mark their lives forever. The next day, he had to walk with his family to El Marrufo estate, where they were detained. His father’s life was saved because one of his friends, who was also a friend of a high-ranking Guardia Civil officer, intervened on his behalf. But José’s uncle was shot. He remembered how the ones who were going to be executed were put into the chapel at the estate the night before. At dawn, the falangists made them walk down to a nearby piece of land, dig their own grave, and then shot them. Every evening, Lieutenant José Robles would make a list of the names of those who were to be executed the following day.

FRANCISCO SERRANO GÓMEZ

Francisco Serrano Gómez was born in Los Barrios in 1913. His father was accused of stealing a pig, which their mother shared with neighbours in their poor community. The whole family was banished and went to live under a bridge in Algeciras. Brought up in poverty, Francisco worked from childhood in sporadic jobs until he started work in a cork factory, where he made friends with colleagues who were anarchists. He joined the CNT and was very active in the union. His life was miraculously saved after the military insurrection and he managed to flee to Jimena and Estepona, where he organised the Fermín Salvochea battalion with other colleagues.  When fleeing from Málaga to Almería, he was horrified at the way the fascist ships and planes shot at men and women, the elderly and children. The war pushed him to Barcelona where he worked as an assault guard for the Republic. In 1939 he crossed into France, where he was to fight against Hitler in the Maquis. When World War II was over he stayed in France, working as a miner and farmer. He spent the last years of his life in Madrid, where he wrote a book of his memoirs called El diario de un aburrido. He died in 2015.

FRANCISCA RODRÍGUEZ GUTIÉRREZ

Francisca Rodríguez Gutiérrez was three years old when the war began in which her grandfather, Juan Rodríguez Reviriego, was shot for going to retrieve his goats which had escaped and gone onto an estate controlled by the falangists. Her father, Manuel Rodríguez Herrera, fled into the mountains because he feared the same fate. The hut in which he lived with his wife and two daughters, in the countryside between Jimena and La Sauceda, was set on fire by the falangist troops. He spent three years hiding in a cave and when he dared to return with his family, he was sentenced to jail. He spent six months in prison. His daughter remembers perfectly the day when she saw her father again. She also remembers the punishments they received after the war, and the years of silence and fear which came afterwards. Now Francisca and her brother Juan Manuel are searching for their grandfather’s remains. They think he could be in the communal graves at El Marrufo or somewhere in the valley of La Sauceda. Being able to give him a dignified burial is their greatest wish.

MANUEL MARQUEZ RODRIGUEZ

Manuel Márquez Rodríguez, who was born in La Línea in 1915, fought in defence of the Republic and suffered imprisonment and exile. He had to flee from La Línea in 1936, after being threatened by a head of the Falange. He went to Gibraltar and from there to Tangiers, where he spent two years. In 1938 he took a ship to Marseilles and from there he went to Catalonia. In Valencia he enrolled in the Republican Army, where he taught soldiers to read and write and basic knowledge in fundamental subjects. He was injured in the war and when it ended he was in Madrid. Upon returning to La Línea he was arrested and sent to a concentration camp in Málaga. He was given a provisional release, but in 1940 was imprisoned again and assigned to a battalion of workers in the Botafuegos concentration camp in Algeciras.  After serving his sentence he went to Tangiers, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He never lost contact with La Línea, or with La Balona, the football club, because he was one of its most loyal fans.

RAFAEL SÁNCHEZ MACHUCA

Rafael Sánchez Machuca is from Taraguilla and in 1936 he was just over five years old. His father Manuel, and his mother María, had another ten children to bring up. They lived near La Sauceda and worked in the countryside. Manuel’s life was miraculously saved, but those of some neighbours, who Rafael can still remember, were not. Two of his uncles spent ten years in jail. Like many other children he went hungry, and had to start working at an early age. He has never forgotten the first plane he ever saw, the one which flew over the mountains before bombarding La Sauceda, nor the line of prisoners who were building the road from Alcalá to Puerto Galis years later. Although he was so young at the time, Rafael has some indelible memories, such as when he heard the word “reds” for the first time, directed contemptuously at the group of children of whom he was part, whose fathers were ‘reds’.

FRANCISCO LÓPEZ HERRERA

Francisco López Herrera, known as Currito, was born in Jimena in 1922 but he grew up in Estación de San Roque, where he spent his childhood and teenage years. After the war he had to flee to the mountains to avoid the same fate as his father, who was shot for defending the Republic. He had connections with the Communist Party of Spain, and he joined the guerrilla movement near Ronda and worked by providing supplies and as a link with the Fermín Galán Guerrilla Group.  He was injured by the Guardia Civil shortly after joining the guerrilla movement and nearly died, but he did recover and rejoined the fight. He was arrested on 18th July 1949 and tried in Seville with ten others. Of those 11, seven were shot but four, including Francisco, had their sentences reduced to life imprisonment. He was sent to jail in Burgos, where he spent the first year in isolation. He was released in 1966. He returned to San Roque, where his girlfriend Ana was waiting for him, and he lived with her until his death in 2009. A lifelong communist, he used to say that if necessary he was prepared to take to the mountains again.

FRANCISCA LOBATO DOMÍNGUEZ

Francisca Lobato Domínguez was seven and living with her parents and two siblings when the war started. Her father, Roque, was executed by the Francoist troops who seized La Sauceda. There, near the church, he was buried clandestinely by his executioners. His wife and children were taken, with the rest of the inhabitants, to El Marrufo estate, where they were detained. Francisca vividly remembers the chapel in which the women and children were kept, and the cries of the prisoners who were taken out to be shot. She also remembers how her mother, by then a widow, went to live near Castellar and tried to make a living by selling things. She would walk between Jimena and La Línea to sell her goods and earn money to feed her children. Neither her mother nor Francisca ever forgot what had happened and some years after the dictator’s death Francisca was able to give her father’s remains a dignified burial. Somebody had placed a piece of stone on the place where he had been buried, and they were able to locate it. The assassins had failed in their attempt to wipe out forever the traces of their crime.